Lahore: Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, organs, and bones. Depending on the type of cancer, it can be treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and/or targeted therapy. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
The development of cancer is a complex process that is not fully understood. It is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some of the known risk factors for cancer include smoking, exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants, certain infections, and a family history of cancer.
Cancer Signs and Symptoms in Urdu
Top 12 Cancer Signs and Symptoms
There are many different types of cancer, each with its own set of signs and symptoms. Some common symptoms include:
Fatigue: Cancer and its treatment can cause a significant amount of physical and emotional exhaustion, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
Lumps or masses: Cancerous tumors can form in various parts of the body and can often be felt as lumps or masses under the skin.
Unexplained weight loss: Cancer can lead to weight loss through the loss of appetite, malabsorption, or increased metabolism.
Changes in skin, such as new moles or unusual coloration: Cancerous cells can form on the skin, leading to the formation of new moles or changes in the color or texture of existing moles.
Persistent pain: Cancer can cause pain due to the growth of tumors, pressure on surrounding tissues, or spread to the bones.
Changes in bowel or bladder habits: Cancer of the colon, rectum, or bladder can cause changes in bowel or bladder habits, such as constipation, diarrhea, or blood in the urine.
Persistent cough or hoarseness: Cancer in the lungs or larynx can cause persistent coughing or hoarseness.
Sores that do not heal: Cancerous cells can form sores or ulcers that do not heal properly.
Unusual bleeding or discharge: Cancer in the reproductive or digestive organs can cause unusual bleeding or discharge.
Difficulty swallowing: Cancer in the esophagus or throat can cause difficulty swallowing.
Changes in the size, shape, or color of the nipple or breast: Cancerous cells can form in the breast, leading to changes in the size, shape, or color of the nipple or breast.
Persistent changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole or other skin lesion: Cancerous cells can form in the skin, leading to persistent changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole or other skin lesion.
Note: These symptoms can be caused by many other conditions, and are not always indicative of cancer. A proper diagnosis can only be made through a medical evaluation. If you have any concerns, you should consult a healthcare professional.
Cancer Diagnosis Tests and Procedures:
Diagnosis of cancer is typically made through a combination of medical tests and procedures, including physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging tests, and biopsy. Once cancer is diagnosed, the healthcare professional will determine the stage of cancer, which refers to the extent of the disease and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
Physical examination: The healthcare professional will check for any signs or symptoms of cancer, such as lumps or changes in the skin.
Laboratory tests: Blood and urine tests can help detect cancer and provide information about the type and stage of the disease.
Imaging tests: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans can create detailed images of the inside of the body and help identify tumors or other abnormal growths.
Biopsy: A sample of the suspicious tissue is taken and examined under a microscope to confirm the presence of cancerous cells.
Staging: Once cancer is diagnosed, the healthcare professional will determine the stage of cancer, which refers to the extent of the disease and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer treatment options depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the overall health and preferences of the patient. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used.
Cancer is a serious disease that can have a significant impact on patients and their loved ones. Early detection and treatment can greatly improve the chances of survival and recovery. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cancer and to consult a healthcare professional if you have any concerns.