White Discharge: Leukorrhea Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

White Discharge

Leukorrhea refers to an excessive amount of thick or thin, milky, vaginal discharge, which could either be white, yellow or green in color depending on its cause. It may be associated with an unpleasant odor at times. It could be due to several reasons, mainly because of estrogen imbalance or any infection of the reproductive tract.

The discharge could have a source of origin from any part of the reproductive tract, such as the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries and even the vagina. It can occur as a natural phenomenon too, in physiological conditions like pregnancy. It could be practically harmless, or maybe the sign of a more serious etiology. Understanding your body is crucial in this case.

Causes of White Discharge

Physiological: When the chemical balance of the vagina is altered, such as due to hormonal imbalance, especially estrogen, leukorrhea can occur. It commonly occurs before you are about to get your period, or for a few days before menarche occurs.

Pregnancy: Due to increased estrogen in the body, there is an increase in the flow of blood to the reproductive tract. This can cause leukorrhea, which is highly common in pregnancy.

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs): Leukorrhea occurs quite frequently if a person has an STD. The discharge may be thicker, dirtier in color, either yellow or green depending on the causative organism, and may be associated with a foul odor and itching in the perineal region.

Vaginitis: Vaginitis is the inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. It could be due to the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis or due to the fungus called Candida Albicans. This discharge is quite irritating and causes severe itching. This needs prompt medical attention before any complications develop.

Read Also: Irregular Periods: Possible Causes of a Missed Period and Treatment

Improper Vaginal Hygiene: Not cleaning your perineal area thoroughly could lead to irritation of the vaginal mucosa. Douching quite frequently can also upset the vagina’s normal bacterial flora.

Symptoms of leukorrhea include:

  • Vaginal discharge – either white, yellow or green
  • Unpleasant vaginal odor
  • Backache
  • Lethargy
  • Burning micturition
  • Weakness
  • Vertigo
  • Painful intercourse
  • Rashes or sore spots in the perineal region
  • Constipation
  • Abdominal cramps

Treatment of Viginal Dishcharge:

Leukorrhea can easily be managed or treated depending on the cause. The most important thing to take care of, personally, is your vaginal hygiene. Make sure to wash thoroughly after passing stool or urine. Douching should be avoided at all costs. If you must use public restrooms, make sure you rinse the toilet seat with water and apply toilet covers for your protection. Changing your lifestyle, eating a well-balanced diet and exercising frequently are always beneficial factors.

If your discharge bothers you a lot, or you develop a foul-smelling, frothy, colored discharge, make sure to visit your doctor. These are signs of an underlying infection, which should not be left untreated at any cost. STDs and UTIs (urinary tract infections) are quite common nowadays, but the good news is that they are easily treatable through a short antibiotic course.

During intercourse, using barrier contraceptive methods can give you and your partner an extra bit of protection. In the case of physiological leukorrhea, panty liners could be used which are easily available at any drugstore or pharmacy. These can be conveniently carried around in your bag and are quite simple to use.

Final Thoughts:

Leukorrhea is very common and every woman experiences it at multiple occasions in her life. It is not something to be embarrassed by, as it is a natural defense mechanism of your body is trying to get rid of any offending agent. To be on the safer side, consulting your doctor and getting regular checkups is ideal.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of infertility in women of childbearing or reproductive age, between 15 and 45. It involves the formation of multiple cysts (fluid-filled sacs) in both your ovaries. It is associated with various factors, ranging from genetics to lifestyle choices.

Women may not realize they have PCOs unless they are trying to conceive, usually around the ages between 20 and 30. PCOS occurs in around 1 out of every ten women and is one of the most easily treatable causes of infertility.

PCO Causes:

There are multiple causes of PCOS, but mostly they revolve around the development of insulin resistance in a female. When there is high insulin resistance, there are increased levels of insulin circulating in the blood which lead to increased production of androgens (male hormones). The signs and symptoms are due to excessive androgen production in females. The causes of PCOS include:

How To Get Rid Of PCOS & PCOD Naturally

GENETICS: Women with a strong family history of PCOS are more likely to develop PCOS themselves, especially due to its autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.

OBESITY: Obese women have higher insulin resistance leading to increased levels of circulating insulin which in turn enhances androgen production.

WEAK IMMUNITY: A weakened immune system and increased stress levels can contribute to PCOS.

INFLAMMATION: Inflammation of or around the ovaries can stimulate increased androgen production.

See Also: Irregular Periods: Possible Causes of a Missed Period and Treatment

Symptoms and Signs of PCOS

The symptoms and signs found in women with PCOS are mostly related to excessive androgen production. The most common of these presenting symptoms include:

Obesity: Usually women with PCOS are quite obese or overweight.

Acne: They make have cystic acne on the face, back, shoulders, neck, etc.

Hirsutism: Excessive hair growth on the face, chin or other body parts like in men.

Weight Gain: Women with PCOS tend to gain weight more easily

Irregular menstrual cycle: They may present with amenorrhea or irregular menstrual cycles, and this is one of the most common reasons for which women visit the doctor.

Hair Thinning – Hair loss or thinning, especially on the scalp, just like in male pattern baldness.

Difficulty getting pregnant: Women are more likely to have problems conceiving children.

Darkened, velvety skin: Usually affects creases, neck and groin areas.

PCOS is associated with many complications as well including:

  • Diabetic Mellitus type 2
  • Infertility
  • Premature birth or miscarriage
  • Depression, mood disorders, anxiety
  • Sleep apnea
  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Endometrial Cancer


Now, with the advancement of medicine, PCOS is quite simply controlled with the use of medications and lifestyle changes. If you notice the development of any such signs and symptoms, you should visit your OBGYN doctor and discuss your condition. They will run blood tests, perform an ultrasound and prescribe you the appropriate medications, along with advice on lifestyle modifications. These include:

DIET CONTROL: A healthy balanced diet is advised which focuses on weight loss and low carbohydrate consumption as well. If the weight gain is controlled and a normal BMI is achieved, it naturally fixes your PCOS.

INCREASED ACTIVITY: By increasing daily activity, by walking or exercising, you can increase weight loss as well and treat your PCOS.

MEDICATIONS: your doctor may prescribe you oral contraceptive pills or metformin to regulate your cycle and balance the levels of hormones in your body, especially by reducing the production of androgens (like testosterone).

TREATING INFERTILITY: Medicines may be prescribed to promote ovulation in women with PCOS, so they have higher chances of conceiving.

TOPICAL OINTMENTS OR CREAMS: For reducing hair growth and controlling acne and hirsutism, topical creams are advised by the doctor.

PCOS has no cure, but it is easily controlled nowadays. Women who have trouble getting pregnant can have children as soon as they get their PCOS under control and eventually live a healthy lifestyle.

Irregular Periods: Possible Causes of a Missed Period and Treatment


Normally, the menstrual cycle is composed of 28 days, where menstruation (bleeding) occurs for approximately 3-7 days for a regular person. It begins at the age of 10-16 years, which is known as menarche and ends between ages 45-55, known as menopause.

During the menstrual phase, the uterine lining (endometrium) sheds in the form of blood, mucous and clots, before regenerating. This process of endometrial shedding every month is known as “menses.” The length of the menstrual cycle can vary in women, from 21 to 35 days, depending on person to person.

Irregular periods refer to the state of abnormal cycle lengths, which could be less than 21 days or more than 35 days. It could also be due to abnormalities in the volume, frequency, and duration of periods. There are certain terms which can be used to describe irregularities:

Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent periods, usually occurring after more than 35 days.

Menorrhagia: Heavy menstrual bleeding, which accounts for excessive loss of blood.

Amenorrhea: Lack of menstrual bleeding.

Dysmenorrhea: Extremely painful bleeding, especially the first 2 days

Polymenorrhagia: Heavy and more frequent bleeding, especially earlier than 21 days.

Hypomenorrhea: Short or extremely light periods

Causes of irregular periods:

There are various causes of irregular periods but mostly, they are related to hormonal imbalances as menstruation is highly dependent on hormones such as LH, FSH and estrogen, progesterone, which regulate the cycles. These causes include:

Read Also: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Pregnancy: The state of pregnancy is retainable when the fertilized egg embeds itself into the endometrial lining. Hence, the menstrual cycle pauses in order to prevent endometrial shedding, so the embryo can grow in it. Pregnancy may be confused for irregular periods, especially if there may be spotting noted.

Lactation: Lactational amenorrhea is a normal physiological process, where a hormone called Prolactin is released during breastfeeding, which causes very light or scanty periods till the mother breastfeeds.

Birth Control Pills: Hormonal birth control pills or certain medications can alter hormonal levels, leading to irregular menstruation. OCPS can cause spotting in between periods.

Stress: Stress is a major factor in causing a delay in menstruation. The more the stress, the more irregular the pattern of periods becomes.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: PCOS refer to the hormonal imbalance due to an excess of male hormone production in the female body. This causes multiple cysts to form on both the ovaries, along with other symptoms. One of the most common presenting features is irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding.

Thyroid Disorder: An overactive or underactive thyroid gland can lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, leading to irregularities.

Intra-Uterine Device: An IUD also releases hormones to prevent pregnancies and this regulation of hormones may cause irregular periods.

Obesity: Obesity has a direct link with PCOS, eventually leading to irregular menses.

Treatment and Management:

Getting the appropriate management is important when it comes to irregular menstrual cycles. The amount of menstrual problems is on the rise, especially in young girls these days. A healthy, balanced diet, along with an active lifestyle are recommended by every physician.

Besides this, if you or anyone you know faces the problem of irregular menstruation quite frequently, make sure to visit a gynecologist. After a full workup, any underlying disease or condition will be managed and treated accordingly. OCPs can be given for patients with PCOS while thyroid disorders can easily be managed using medication as well.

Irregular menstruation is easily treatable nowadays with the advancement of modern medicine. Women of child bearing age with multiple medical issues can smoothly conceive after receiving the right treatment. If you face any irregularities in your menstrual cycle, consult a doctor as soon as possible, as there are quite many complications of leaving underlying medical conditions untreated.